What is the difference between Stress and Depression?

There are times when I feel so down and hopeless but in most cases, these feelings pass on their own and then out of the blue, I’m back to normal, could that be normal stress? I’ve seen people who end-up in a worse shape of life, and always hear its because of depression. Is there any difference between the stress we get every now and then and depression?  Which one is more dangerous and how do I know when to seek medical help? Thanks for your help.

Regular User Asked on November 9, 2018 in Mental Health.
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I get a lot of stress everyday, but as you said, it goes away on its own after a little refreshment at the end of work in the day. I’ve seen severe depression consequences in my family friends and I always thought its just same stress on a different level. Someone does a very mindless act or even things you thought he/she wasn’t capable of doing and then says “I’m sorry, I was depressed” as an explanation, so I don’t know much about the science behind it, hope to hear from someone who knows too. Thanks!

Regular User Answered on November 9, 2018.
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Fred, it is a very pertinent and tough question and I don’t know the answer. I know they are both part of the mental health spectrum, but to know the exact difference is complicated. I would love to read the answer from a professional like a Psychiatrist . Someone please ?

Super User Answered on November 9, 2018.
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Here is what I found on WebMD. It looks like stress is a trigger of depression… Hope it helps.

Stress is good for you. It keeps you alert, motivated and primed to respond to danger. As anyone who has faced a work deadline or competed in a sport knows, stress mobilizes the body to respond, improving performance. Yet too much stress, or chronic stress may lead to major depression in susceptible people.

“Like email and email spam, a little stress is good but too much is bad; you’ll need to shut down and reboot,” says Esther Sternberg, MD, a leading stress researcher and the chief of neuroendocrine immunology and behavior at the National Institute of Mental Health.

Even positive events, such as getting married or beginning a new job, can be stressful and may lead to an episode of major depression. Yet about 10% of people suffer from depression without the trigger of a stressful event.

The Stress-Depression Connection
Stress — whether chronic, such as taking care of a parent with Alzheimer’s, or acute, such as losing a job or the death of a loved one — can lead to major depression in susceptible people. Both types of stress lead to overactivity of the body’s stress-response mechanism.

Sustained or chronic stress, in particular, leads to elevated hormones such as cortisol, the “stress hormone,” and reduced serotonin and other neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine, which has been linked to depression. When these chemical systems are working normally, they regulate biological processes like sleep, appetite, energy, and sex drive, and permit expression of normal moods and emotions.

When the stress response fails to shut off and reset after a difficult situation has passed, it can lead to depression in susceptible people.

No one in life escapes event-related stress, such as death of a loved one, a job loss, divorce, a natural disaster such as an earthquake, or even a dramatic dip in your 401(k). A layoff — an acute stressor — may lead to chronic stress if a job search is prolonged.

Loss of any type is a major risk factor for depression. Grieving is considered a normal, healthy, response to loss, but if it goes on for too long it can trigger a depression. A serious illness, including depression itself, is considered a chronic stressor.

Stress and Depression: Lifestyle Factors
The connection between stress and depression is complex and circular. People who are stressed often neglect healthy lifestyle practices. They may smoke, drink more than normal, and neglect regular exercise. “Stress, or being stressed out, leads to behaviors and patterns that in turn can lead to a chronic stress burden and increase the risk of major depression,” says Bruce McEwen, PhD, author of The End of Stress as We Know It.

Losing a job is not only a blow to self-esteem, but it results in the loss of social contacts that can buffer against depression.

Interestingly, many of the changes in the brain during an episode of depression resemble the effects of severe, prolonged, stress.

Stress and Depression: Building Resilience
Once someone is in the grip of major depression, it’s usually not the best time to make lifestyle changes. But you can guard against a reoccurrence of depression or help protect against a first episode of depression by adopting lifestyle changes that modify the body’s stress response. Building resilience is particularly important if you are experiencing chronic stress, such as unemployment.

The following lifestyle changes can help reduce stress levels and boost your resilience, reducing the risk of depression:

1. Exercise: Experts recommend a half-hour of moderate exercise, such as walking or swimming five days a week. “Running a marathon is not what you want to do,” says Sternberg. Exercise produces chemicals in the body that boost your mood and stimulate hormones and neurotransmitters, including endorphins, that can help reduce stress.

2. Strong, supportive relationships: Isolation is a risk factor for depression, while community buffers people from the effects of adversity. Negative, critical relationships are harmful.

3. Yogameditation, prayer, psychotherapy: Studies have shown that these practices can be helpful, “retraining your brain circuits,” says Sternberg. “They have a positive effect on the emotional brain circuits.”

4. Eating well and not drinking too much alcohol. People who feel stressed may drink too much; alcohol is a known mood suppressor.

5. Making time for yourself. Schedule some downtime to pursue creative pursuits or a hobby. Today’s harried, multitasking life is stressful. If possible, schedule mini-vacations; longer breaks of at least 10 days have been shown to be more beneficial in reducing stress.

6. Sleep. People who are working overtime, or juggling family and work, may not be getting eight hours of restful sleep.

Super User Answered on November 9, 2018.
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I’ve read it all (skimmed big words 🙂 ), but to transcribe it into a lay man’s understanding – stress is normal and sometimes good as it may motivate us to focus and complete tasks ahead of us, while depression is a severe and harmful state of excessive stress. Depression can become a diseases and may result into need for treatment. The article keeps mentioning “chronic stress may result into depression in susceptible people“, what could be the factors that make someone more prone or susceptible to depression than the guy next to him? Could someone like me (who’ve never slept the recommended 8 hours, as I don’t normally exceed 6) be the susceptible kind or are such factors (that make one susceptible) genetic? Thanks!

Regular User Answered on November 9, 2018.
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I definitely think that if you experience important stress swings, you are then more prone to depression. This said, everybody experiences stress on a daily basis. The difference is that some people handle stress better than others. I don’t know the kind of life you have but after reading your comments, it looks like you have a more difficult time to handle stress or that your stress level is higher. Genetic is also an important factor.

Super User Answered on November 10, 2018.
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